Oeuvre D Orient Expository Essays

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Arthur boyd analysis lovers persecuted essay

Accueil > L'association > Notre histoire

Notre histoire

En 1856, naît “l’Œuvre des Ecoles d’Orient”, association destinée à venir en aide aux enfants du Liban. Ses créateurs, regroupés autour du Baron Cauchy, célèbre mathématicien, sont tous des laïcs, professeurs en Sorbonne.

Reconnue Œuvre d’Eglise en 1858 par le bienheureux Pape Pie IX, elle voit son champ d’action s’élargir rapidement et devient alors l’Œuvre d’Orient. L’ abbé Lavigerie est son premier directeur.

Puis 10 directeurs se sont succédés jusqu’à aujourd’hui.

Baron Augustin Cauchy

Fondateur de l’Œuvre d’Orient en 1856, vice- président jusqu’à sa disparition en 1857.
Célèbre mathématicien, membre de l’Institut.

Des racines historiques

L’Œuvre des Ecoles d’Orient naît à l’époque où la France redevient une grande puissance. Par le Traité de Paris en 1856, qui met fin à la guerre de Crimée, elle est reconnue dans ses droits de protectrice des chrétiens de l’Empire ottoman. Au même moment, les pays arabes, influencés par les idées de la révolution française selon lesquelles il ne saurait y avoir de liberté sans instruction, remettent en cause l’autorité des turcs.

En 1860, le massacre des chrétiens par les Druzes soulève une émotion considérable en France. Lavigerie, dépêché sur place,  recommande d’ouvrir hôpitaux et dispensaires, remercie Abd El-Kader d’avoir protégé les chrétiens à Damas et y trouve sa vocation
missionnaire. Tandis qu’en Orient se préparela fin de l’Empire ottoman, les nationalismes exacerbés se retournent contre les chrétiens. Représentant 20% de la population en 1914, ceux-ci sont victimes de massacres et de pogroms dont certains sont occultés encore aujourd’hui.

La fin des Empires crée une situation nouvelle : le Proche-Orient est placé sous mandat, certaines revendications ethniques étant reconnues, comme celles par exemple des Libanais, tandis que d’autres ne le sont pas comme celles des Assyro-chaldéens, malgré les promesses britanniques.

 

 

Charles Lenormant

Cofondateur de l’Œuvre d’Orient, vice-président jusqu’à sa disparition en 1859.
Hélléniste et professeur en Sorbonne.

 

Une adaptation aux grandes évolutions

L’Œuvre d’Orient voit la fin des chrétiens de Turquie et s’ouvre à ceux d’Europe centrale et d’Inde. Après la 2nde Guerre mondiale, malgré les espoirs suscités par le baasisme, l’hémorragie des chrétiens continue,  alors qu’un peu partout en Orient s’établissent des régimes dictatoriaux. Ces périodes changeantes ne sont en outre jamais favorables aux pauvres.

L’Œuvre soutient communautés et institutions qui, parfois avec une absence de moyens dramatique, continuent de servir, avec l’amour de Dieu, les populations, quelle que soit leur appartenance religieuse.

Aujourd’hui, une évolution démocratique s’esquisse en certains endroits, tandis que des courants musulmans se radicalisent.
Souvent pris entre deux feux, les chrétiens ont l’espoir qu’au-delà d’un statut de protection, leur citoyenneté soit pleinement reconnue.

L’Œuvre d’Orient est attentive à ces mouvements et continue d’exprimer la communion des chrétiens de France avec les chrétiens d’Orient.

 

 

L’abbé Charles Martial Lavigerie

Premier directeur de l’Œuvre d’Orient de 1857 à 1863. Evêque de Nancy, puis archevêque d’Alger ; cardinal ; fondateur des Pères Blancs.

 

 

Qui étaient les 11 directeurs de l’Œuvre d’Orient ?

 


Naissance de l’Œuvre d’Orient

Plus de 160 ans se seront écoulés depuis la fondation de l’Œuvre d’Orient. Les Salons du numéro 13 de la rue Hautefeuille, (Paris 6ème) à l’époque demeure de Monsieur Mandaroux-Vertamy, ont accueilli le vendredi 4 avril 1856 à 8 heures du soir, une multitude de personnalités qui s’y donnaient la main sous la bannière de la patrie, malgré leurs divisions intestines déjà grandes, pour graver ensemble l’acte de naissance de l’Œuvre des Ecoles d’ Orient.

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