Pride is one of the seven deadly sins. Its effect on people, however, is often subtle at the start and hard to detect. Most proud people will never consider themselves to be truly proud until they come face to face with the consequences of their pride. Sophocles and Shakespeare both address this dilemma in their plays Oedipus and Othello. Through their nobility, their tragic flaws, the fall these flaws cause, and the suffering and wisdom they derive from these falls, Oedipus and Othello reveal the true character of the tragic hero and show the devastating consequences of pride.
Both Oedipus and Othello are distinguished by nobility: Oedipus by birth and deed and Othello by a distinguished career. Oedipus is the son of King Laius and Jocasta his wife, the king and queen of Thebes. Because of an oracle prophesying that King Laius will be murdered by his son, Oedipus is left to die in "the mountains where Cithaeron is"(1472). He is then rescued by a shepherd and raised by "Polybus. . . king of Corinth/and Merope, the Dorian" (834-35). Not only is Oedipus noble in his birth and upbringing, he is also noble in deed. Upon coming to Thebes as a young man, Oedipus answers the riddle of the Sphinx, who is terrorizing the citizens, and rids the city of this monster. In turn he is made King of Thebes and marries, unknowingly, his mother, the queen. Othello, on the other hand, is noble only by deed. He is a Moor and a barbarian by Venetian customs. He is an outsider, yet he is accepted by the Venetian people because of his distinguished career as general of the Venetian army. In defense of his lack of noble heritage, Othello asserts: "I fetch my life and being / From men of royal siege" (1.2.20-21). It is his rank that makes him noble. His contemporaries also praise him as "brave Othello" (2.1.37), and they declare that he "commands / Like a full soldier" (2.1.35-36). Oedipus and Othello have the nobility that a true tragic hero must have, yet this nobility is only the armor that covers the true weakness that lies within each man.
Although they show it in different ways, Oedipus and Othello both suffer from a similar character flaw, the sin of pride. Oedipus' pride is revealed in his belief that he is greater than the gods. He believes that he is capable of establishing his own destiny apart from the gods' control or help. When the priest, at the beginning of the story, begs Oedipus to help the people in the time of famine and trouble, he states: "It was God / That aided you, men say, and you are held / With God's assistance to have saved our lives" (43-45). The priest is referring to Oedipus' answer to the riddle of the Sphinx, which delivered the people of Thebes from the Sphinx's oppression. Later, however, Oedipus' pride is revealed when, speaking of the same event, he says: "But I came, / Oedipus, who knew nothing, and I stopped her. / I solved the riddle by my wit alone" (433-35). Othello also suffers from the hamartia of pride. His pride, however, stems from his insecurity concerning his appearance and social graces. His father-in-law speaks of Othello's "sooty bosom" in reference to his blackness (1.2.69). Othello admits freely that he is "rude . . . in [his] speech" (1.3.81). And finally, insight is given to this appearance through the words of Brabantio, his father-in-law, who speaks incredulously of his daughter's love for Othello: "To fall in love with what she feared to look upon" (1.3.98). The insecurity Othello feels concerning his appearance and social graces ultimately leads to jealousy over Desdemona's love for him, yet, within this jealousy, his true fear and pride are revealed. Othello's true fear is what other people will think about him. When Iago prods him, Othello says: "My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrimed and black" (3.3.383-84). Later, when speaking to Desdemona, Othello whines: "But alas, to make me / The fixed figure for the time of scorn" (4. 2.53). Othello fears that other men will laugh at him because of the unfaithfulness of his wife, and his pride is what truly motivates his desire for revenge. Pride becomes the fertile ground in both Oedipus and Othello for the seeds of their destruction and ruin.
Although the details vary, Oedipus and Othello both suffer great shame and loss because of the pride within their hearts. Oedipus' pride is turned to shame as his murder of his father and his incestuous relationship with his mother are brought to light. Then he begins to lose those things that are most precious to him. First, he loses his mother and wife as Jocasta is found "hanging, the twisted rope around her neck" (1294). Next he loses his sight as he takes Jocasta's "gold chased brooches fastening her robe" (1299) and dashes "them upon his eyeballs" (1301). Finally, he loses his kingdom as Teiresias' prophecy is fulfilled: "blindness for sight / And beggary for riches his exchange" (503-504). Othello's pride is also turned to shame as he listens to the villainous Iago and murders his innocent wife. In doing this terrible deed, he also loses those things most precious to him. First, he loses his true love as Desdemona forgives him from her death bed by trying to hide his guilt. When asked "Who has done this deed?" she replies: "Nobody-I myself" (5.2.123-4). Later, Othello admits that he "threw a pearl away / Richer than all his tribe" (5.2.343-44). Then he completely loses his honor as he is replaced by Cassio as governor and branded a murderer. Finally, he loses his life as he declares: "I took by the throat the circumcised dog / And smote him-thus" (5.2.351-52) as he kills himself. Pride destroys both Oedipus and Othello.
Oedipus and Othello both learn through their experiences that pride is a destructive vice indeed, and that men who choose to be proud are destined for great suffering in this life. Blind Oedipus and dead Othello, who feared even greater suffering beyond the grave, are true tragic heroes in their final state, for it is here that people can look upon them and learn what they learned only too late. Pride is deadly.
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Othello, Moor of Venice. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama. Ed. X. J. Kennedy. 5th ed. New York: Harper, 1991. 1046- 1133.
Sophocles. Oedipus the King. Trans. Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama. Ed. X. J. Kennedy. 5th ed. New York: Harper, 1991. 999-1039.
Pride, the Tragic Flaw of Oedipus the King
- Length: 513 words (1.5 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
According to Aristotle, the protagonist in a tragedy must have a tragic flaw that ultimately becomes the cause of his ruin. Oedipus in Oedipus the King by Sophocles tragic flaw that caused his downfall was his pride. Three examples of when Oedipus’ pride got the better of him were: when he left his adopted parents in Cornith, the second is when he goes against Creon, and the third is when Oedipus is demanding that the messenger tell him all he knows about who his real parents are.
Oedipus shows himself as being very pridefull when he leaves his adopted parents in Corinth. Oedipus leaves after he is told about his destiny from an old prophet. The prophet tells Oedipus that he will one day kill his father and marry his mother. Fearing this, Oedipus decides to leave Cornith. In doing this he is going against the gods, he is saying that he is not going to let this happen to him and he is going to control his own destiny.
The second example of when Oedipus is shown having a great deal of pride is when he goes against Creon. Oedipus calls Creon a traitor. He says that Creon persuaded him to send for the prophet, Tiresias, to find out who murdered King Laius. He thinks that Creon and Tiresias plotted against him, saying that he was the one who murdered the king. Oedipus believes that Creon did this so he could become king.
The last example of when Oedipus’ pride gets the better of him was when he is demanding that the messenger tell him all he knows about who his real parents are. Again the messenger is trying to tell him that things would be better left untold, but Oedipus has to keep going on and on and find out. Finally the messenger tells him that Polybus is not his father, already Jocasta has figured out that she is his mother. Oedipus asks the messenger who his real parents are. Jocasta is begging Oedipus to pay no attention to the messenger and tells Oedipus, “Never find out who you are';(1073). Oedipus, of course, goes on ahead anyway and sends for the shepherd who know where Oedipus came from. Once again Oedipus pride got in the way.
In conclusion, I think that if Oedipus had not had this huge sense of pride things would have turn out a lot better for him.
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Oedipus Oedipus Rex Own Destiny Messenger Jocasta Tiresias Prophet Leaves Traitor Creon
First of all, if Oedipus had never left Cornith he would have never murdered his father, King Laius. By not murdering the king, he would have never had the opportunity to marry his mother, Jocasta. And not marrying Jocasta meant, she would have never committed suicide. So you see things would have been a lot better different if he did not try to control his future and go against the gods and his prophecy.