Modern World History Mcdougal Littell Bibliography Definition

About This Product

Modern World History offers a comprehensive look at world history from the mid-15th century to the present. Thousands of subject entries, biographies, images, videos and slideshows, maps and graphs, primary sources, and timelines combine to provide a detailed and comparative view of the people, places, events, and ideas that have defined modern world history. Focused Topic Centers pull forward interesting entries, search terms, documents, and maps handpicked by our editors to help users find a starting point for their research, as well as videos and slideshow overviews to offer a visual introduction to key eras and regions. All the Infobase history databases in a collection are fully cross-searchable.


  • Comprehensive Coverage: With Modern World History, users can delve deep into their topics or examine different perspectives through event and topic entries, slideshows, primary sources, images, tablet/mobile-friendly videos, general and topic-specific timelines, biographies of key people, original maps and charts, and more.
  • Easy Access to Content: Featured content in Modern World History is handpicked by our editors to inform research and provide guided entryways into the database, plus convenient links to key areas are at the top of every page.
  • Editorially Curated Topic Centers:Modern World History features specially selected content on different eras and themes of history—including articles, shareable slideshows, videos, primary sources, and more—that provides a starting point for research. Topic Centers include:
    • Africa, Asia and Oceania
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • The Americas
    • The First Global Age: 1450–1770
    • An Age of Revolutions: 1750–1914
    • A Half Century of Crisis: 1900–1945
    • Promises and Paradoxes: 1945–Present.
  • Suggested Research Topics: Each Topic Center in Modern World History includes handpicked selections showcasing the best resources for each topic—including in-depth overview essays—providing guidance for research.
  • Primary Sources:Modern World History includes thousands of primary sources, many with introductions that provide context and background.
  • Videos, Images, Maps, and Slideshows:Modern World History’s videos, images, original maps, and original slideshows provide a fascinating visual introduction to key topics and themes.
  • Biographies: Under “Featured People,” Modern World History includes helpful lists of Enlightenment thinkers, women in world history, Renaissance painters, and dictators and tyrants. Each list includes dates of birth and death, a brief descriptor of the person’s achievements, and a link to relevant search results.
  • Controversies in History: Editorially selected pro/con articles on hundreds of controversies in history can be found in Modern World History, enabling researchers to grasp the essence and importance of every conflict and the reasons people debated them.
  • Overview Essays:Modern World History includes substantial and thorough overview essays giving extensive background on relevant historical topics and eras.
  • Book Chapters: Chapters from authoritative print titles written by noted historians complement the thousands of encyclopedia entries, biographies, definitions, and other resources Modern World History provides. Book chapters allow for original thinking and are ideal for an in-depth study of a topic.
  • Authoritative Source List:Modern World History features a complete inventory, by type, of the extraordinary amount of expertly researched and written content in the database, including articles from a wealth of award-winning proprietary print titles, primary sources, images, videos, timelines, and a list of contributors to the database—information researchers can trust.
  • Curriculum Tools: This section of Modern World Historyfeatures writing and research tips for students and educators, including:
    • Advice on analyzing and understanding editorial cartoons, primary sources, and online sources
    • Guides for presenting research, including avoiding plagiarism, citing sources, completing a primary source worksheet, summarizing articles, and writing research papers
    • Educator tools, including advice on preventing plagiarism and using editorial cartoons in class.
  • Full Cross-Searchability:Modern World History is fully cross-searchable with any combination of the other Infobase History Research Center databases to which your institution subscribes.


  • Universal Folder for all saved items across any Infobase History Research Center databases in your collection, plus enhanced Save-to-Folder functionality
  • Search by Common Core, national, state, provincial, International Baccalaureate Organization, and College Board AP standards to find correlating articles
  • Convenient A-to-Z topic lists can be filtered by Topic Center
  • Tag “clouds” for all content, linking to related material
  • Searchable timelines, including a detailed general timeline, updated monthly, plus regional and era-specific timelines
  • Maps and graphs with descriptions
  • Real-time, searchable Reuters® newsfeed
  • Dynamic citations in MLA, Chicago, and Harvard formats, with EasyBib export functionality
  • Read Aloud tool
  • Ability for users to set preferences for default language, citation format, number of search results, and standards set for correlations
  • Persistent record links
  • Search Assist technology
  • Searchable Support Center with valuable help materials, how-to tips, tutorials, and live help chat
  • Google Translate for 100+ languages.

Library Journal Best Database

“…particularly useful for teachers and librarians to use as a teaching and research tool.”
American Reference Books Annual

“…simple to use and contains a substantial amount of information, laid out in an aesthetically pleasing manner…Recommended…”
Reference Reviews

“…[goes] into great depth…and feature[s] primary sources that are useful and often required for assignments.”
Library Journal

“…highly recommended for small and medium-sized public, academic, and school libraries…easy to use…extremely student-friendly.”

“…very useful…a gorgeous update on an already superlative…database.”

“The format…offer[s] one-stop shopping for the user.”
Reference Reviews

“…offer[s] full-text access to information…a valuable addition to the electronic research collections of most libraries.”

Modern World History: 2017 Year in Review—Updates and More

Modern World History has been updated and enhanced throughout the past year, increasing the educational value of this award-winning resource. Read More ›

Modern World History: 2017 Year in Review—Updates and More

Modern World History has been updated and enhanced throughout the past year, increasing the educational value of this award-winning resource.

Recent Updates and Additions:

  • New articles: Added 700 new entries on topics spanning the entire modern world history curriculum. The authoritative sources added include:
    • Handbook to Life in Renaissance Europe
    • The Sinking of the USS Maine
    • The Treaty of Paris
    • The Monroe Doctrine
    • Sputnik and Explorer I
    • The French Revolution and the Rise of Napoleon
    • The End of Apartheid in South Africa
    • The Great Irish Famine
    • The Marshall Plan.
  • Updated articles: Updated 700 entries on Latin American, African, and Palestinian history from major encyclopedic sources such as:
    • Encyclopedia of Modern Latin America
    • Encyclopedia of Independent Africa
    • Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Third Edition.
  • Images: Added 550 new images with detailed captions on a range of subjects.
  • Primary sources: Added 380 new documents with detailed introductory notes, including excerpts from:
    • The Edict of Worms, 1521
    • The Treaty of Amritsar, 1809
    • The Charter Oath of the Meiji Restoration, 1868
    • The Palestine National Charter, 1968
    • The Declaration of Cumana, 2009
    • Statements on Establishing Diplomatic Relations between the United States and Cuba, 2014
    • John Kerry’s Remarks on Middle East Peace, 2016.
  • Maps: Added 30 new proprietary maps and updated approximately 20 maps, including:
    • Ethno-linguistic groups of Iran
    • Asante Empire, ca. 1800
    • Maasai homeland
    • First Saudi State, 1744–1818
    • Portuguese trade routes, 16th century
    • Genealogy of the House of Saud.
  • Videos: Added 120 video clips on topics ranging across the world history curriculum, including the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte, the Cold War, and Fidel Castro.
  • Timelines: Updated regularly.

Click on the links below for more information about Modern World History:

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Additional Databases Added to Infobase Search API

With the abundance of electronic resources available today, many schools prefer to access their educational assets in one place. Federated search engines and other discovery tools allow libraries to do just that—easily search through multiple content sources in their catalog at the same time. Read More ›

Additional Databases Added to Infobase Search API

With the abundance of electronic resources available today, many schools prefer to access their educational assets in one place. Federated search engines and other discovery tools allow libraries to do just that—easily search through multiple content sources in their catalog at the same time.

The Infobase Search API (XML Gateway) allows our discovery tool partners to easily integrate the data from Infobase products into their federated search solutions for our shared customers. It provides a much-needed “communication bridge” between Infobase content and those discovery tools.

The databases that are currently part of the Infobase API include:

  • Health Reference Center
  • American History Online
  • Modern World History Online
  • African-American History Online
  • American Indian History Online
  • Ancient and Medieval History Online
  • Science Online.

More Infobase products will continue to be added to the Infobase API.

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History Research Center: Exciting New Content Added

We are delighted to announce our latest update to our five Infobase history databases (History Research Center)—valuable new entries, articles, and videos. Read More ›

History Research Center: Exciting New Content Added

We are delighted to announce our latest update to our five Infobase history databases (History Research Center)—valuable new entries, articles, and videos.

More Than 3,300 New and Updated Entries and More Than 770 New Videos (9,500+ Clips)

History Research Center now features a wealth of new content on both timely and evergreen subjects from critically acclaimed Facts On File, Chelsea House, and Wiley-Blackwell series, along with videos from some of the most recognized and trusted film producers in the world. The new scholarly articles and video titles cover topics from immigration, the Civil War and Reconstruction, and Latin American history to Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Roman Republic, the medieval world, and many more. The updated content on American presidents, first ladies, vice presidents, and Supreme Court justices is ideal for providing background and context to support election-year studies!

New entries include:

  • Immigration and Race Relations in America
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt: The 1936–1944 Campaigns
  • Political History of the Ancient World
  • The Idea of a “Middle Ages”
  • Syrian Civil War.

New videos include:

  • The Constitution and Foundations of Government
  • What Kennedy Didn’t Know: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited
  • Inside the Medieval Mind
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers His “I Have a Dream” Speech ca. 1963
  • The Explorers: Five Europeans Who Redrew the Map of the World.

History Research Center includes five history databases, all fully cross-searchable and seamlessly integrated for a complete, single history resource. The databases included with History Research Center are American History Online, African-American History Online, American Indian History Online, Ancient & Medieval History Online, and Modern World History Online.

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This article is about the academic field. For a global overview of historical events, see History of the world. For the album by Mad at the World, see World History (album).

World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. It examines history from a global perspective. It is not to be confused with comparative history, which, like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale. World history looks for common patterns that emerge across all cultures. World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration (how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together) and difference (how patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experiences).[1]

Establishment of the field[edit]

The advent of world history as a distinct academic field of study can be traced to 1980s,[2] and was heralded by the creation of the World History Association and graduate programs at a handful of universities. Over the next decades scholarly publications, professional and academic organizations, and graduate programs in world history proliferated. World History has often displaced Western Civilization in the required curriculum of American high schools and universities, and is supported by new textbooks with a world history approach.


  • The H-World discussion list[3] serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.
  • The International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (ISCSC) approaches world history from the standpoint of comparative civilizations. Founded at a conference in 1961 in Salzburg, Austria, that was attended by Othmar Anderlie, Pitirim Sorokin, and Arnold J. Toynbee, this is an international association of scholars that publishes a journal, Comparative Civilization Review, and hosts an annual meeting in cities around the world.
  • The Journal of World History has been published quarterly by the World History Association since 1990.[4]
  • The Journal of Global History is a scholarly journal established in 2006 and is published by Cambridge University Press.
  • World History Association (WHA) - Established in the 1980s, the WHA is predominantly an American phenomenon.[5]



The study of world history, as distinct from national history, has existed in many world cultures. However, early forms of world history were not truly global, and were limited to only the regions known by the historian.

In Ancient China, Chinese world history, that of China and the surrounding people of East Asia, was based on the dynastic cycle articulated by Sima Qian in circa 100 BC. Sima Qian's model is based on the Mandate of Heaven. Rulers rise when they united China, then are overthrown when a ruling dynasty became corrupt.[6] Each new dynasty begins virtuous and strong, but then decays, provoking the transfer of Heaven's mandate to a new ruler. The test of virtue in a new dynasty is success in being obeyed by China and neighboring barbarians. After 2000 years Sima Qian's model still dominates scholarship, although the dynastic cycle is no longer used for modern Chinese history.[7]

In Ancient Greece, Herodotus (5th century BC), as founder of Greek historiography,[8] presents insightful and lively discussions of the customs, geography, and history of Mediterranean peoples, particularly the Egyptians. However, his great rival Thucydides promptly discarded Herodotus's all-embracing approach to history, offering instead a more precise, sharply focused monograph, dealing not with vast empires over the centuries but with 27 years of war between Athens and Sparta. In Rome, the vast, patriotic history of Rome by Livy (59 BC-17 AD) approximated Herodotean inclusiveness;[9] Polybius (c.200-c.118 BC) aspired to combine the logical rigor of Thucydides with the scope of Herodotus.[10]

In Central Asia, The Secret History of Mongols is regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan. The Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world.

In the Middle East, Ala'iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226–1283) was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire entitled Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā (History of the World Conqueror).[11] The standard edition of Juvayni is published under the title Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā, ed. Mirza Muhammad Qazwini, 3 vol, Gibb Memorial Series 16 (Leiden and London, 1912–37). An English translation by John Andrew Boyle "The History of the World-Conqueror" was republished in 1997.

Rashīd al-Dīn Fadhl-allāh Hamadānī (1247–1318), was a Persian physician of Jewish origin, polymathic writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language, often considered a landmark in intercultural historiography and a key document on the Ilkhanids (13th and 14th century).[12] His encyclopedic knowledge of a wide range of cultures from Mongolia to China to the Steppes of Central Eurasia to Persia, the Arabic-speaking lands, and Europe, provide the most direct access to information on the late Mongol era. His descriptions also highlight the manner in which the Mongol Empire and its emphasis on trade resulted in an atmosphere of cultural and religious exchange and intellectual ferment, resulting in the transmission of a host of ideas from East to West and vice versa.

One Muslim scholar, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1409) broke with traditionalism and offered a model of historical change in Muqaddimah, an exposition of the methodology of scientific history. Ibn Khaldun focused on the reasons for the rise and fall of civilization, arguing that the causes of change are to be sought in the economic and social structure of society. His work was largely ignored in the Muslim world.[13] Otherwise the Muslim, Chinese and Indian intellectuals held fast to a religious traditionalism, leaving them unprepared to advise national leaders on how to confront the European intrusion into Asia after 1500.

Early modern[edit]

During the Renaissance in Europe, history was written about states or nations. The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history (historia).

Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) in Italy wrote Scienza nuva seconda (The New Science) in 1725, which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds. He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature changes over time. Each epoch should be seen as a whole in which all aspects of culture—art, religion, philosophy, politics, and economics—are interrelated (a point developed later by Oswald Spengler). Vico showed that myth, poetry, and art are entry points to discovering the true spirit of a culture. Vico outlined a conception of historical development in which great cultures, like Rome, undergo cycles of growth and decline. His ideas were out of fashion during the Enlightenment, but influenced the Romantic historians after 1800.

A major theoretical foundation for world history was given by German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, who saw the modern Prussian state as the latest (though often confused with the highest) stage of world development.


World history became a popular genre in the 20th century with universal history. In the 1920s, several best-sellers dealt with the history of the world, including surveys The Story of Mankind (1921) by Hendrik Willem van Loon and The Outline of History (1918) by H.G. Wells. Influential writers who have reached wide audiences include H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Carroll Quigley, Christopher Dawson,[14] and Lewis Mumford. Scholars working the field include Eric Voegelin,[15]William Hardy McNeill and Michael Mann.[16]

Spengler'sDecline of the West (2 vol 1919–1922) compared nine organic cultures: Egyptian (3400 BC-1200 BC), Indian (1500 BC-1100 BC), Chinese (1300 BC-AD 200), Classical (1100 BC-400 BC), Byzantine (AD 300–1100), Aztec (AD 1300–1500), Arabian (AD 300–1250), Mayan (AD 600–960), and Western (AD 900–1900). His book was a smashing success among intellectuals worldwide as it predicted the disintegration of European and American civilization after a violent "age of Caesarism," arguing by detailed analogies with other civilizations. It deepened the post-World War I pessimism in Europe, and was warmly received by intellectuals in China, India, and Latin America who hoped his predictions of the collapse of European empires would soon come true.[17]

In 1936–1954, Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History came out in three separate installments. He followed Spengler in taking a comparative topical approach to independent civilizations. Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their origin, growth, and decay. Toynbee rejected Spengler's biological model of civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000 years. Like Sima Qian, Toynbee explained decline as due to their moral failure. Many readers rejoiced in his implication (in vols. 1–6) that only a return to some form of Catholicism could halt the breakdown of western civilization which began with the Reformation. Volumes 7–10, published in 1954, abandoned the religious message, and his popular audience slipped away, while scholars picked apart his mistakes.,[18]

McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1963) to improve upon Toynbee by showing how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from the very beginning of their history, borrowing critical skills from one another, and thus precipitating still further change as adjustment between traditional old and borrowed new knowledge and practice became necessary. McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of peoples across the Earth. Such interactions have become both more numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times. Before about 1500, the network of communication between cultures was that of Eurasia. The term for these areas of interaction differ from one world historian to another and include world-system and ecumene. Whatever it is called, the importance of these intercultural contacts has begun to be recognized by many scholars.[19]

History education[edit]

United States[edit]

T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M. Taylor co-authored Civilization Past & Present, the first world-history textbook published in the United States (1942). With additional authors, this very successful work went through numerous editions up to the first decade of the twenty-first century. According to the Golden Anniversary edition of 1992, the ongoing objective of Civilization Past & Present "was to present a survey of world cultural history, treating the development and growth of civilization not as a unique European experience but as a global one through which all the great culture systems have interacted to produce the present-day world. It attempted to include all the elements of history – social, economic, political, religious, aesthetic, legal, and technological."[20] In college curricula of the United States, world history became a popular replacement for courses on Western Civilization. Professors Patrick Manning, previously of Northeastern University and now at the University of Pittsburgh's World History Center; and Ross E. Dunn at San Diego State are leaders in promoting innovative teaching methods.[21]

In schools of architecture in the U.S., the National Architectural Accrediting Board now requires that schools teach history that includes a non-west or global perspective. This reflects a decade-long effort to move past the standard Euro-centric approach that had dominated the field.[22]

Recent themes[edit]

In recent years, the relationship between African and world history has shifted rapidly from one of antipathy to one of engagement and synthesis. Reynolds (2007) surveys the relationship between African and world histories, with an emphasis on the tension between the area studies paradigm and the growing world-history emphasis on connections and exchange across regional boundaries. A closer examination of recent exchanges and debates over the merits of this exchange is also featured. Reynolds sees the relationship between African and world history as a measure of the changing nature of historical inquiry over the past century.[23]

Marxian theory of history[edit]

Main article: Marx's theory of history § The stages of history

The Marxist theory of historical materialism claims the history of the world is fundamentally determined by the material conditions at any given time – in other words, the relationships which people have with each other in order to fulfil basic needs such as feeding, clothing and housing themselves and their families.[24] Overall, Marx and Engels claimed to have identified five successive stages of the development of these material conditions in Western Europe.[25]

The theory divides the history of the world into the following periods:[26][27][28][29][30] Primitive communism; Slave society; Feudalism; Capitalism; and Socialism.

Regna Darnell and Frederic Gleach argue that, in the Soviet Union, the Marxian theory of history was the only accepted orthodoxy, and stifled research into other schools of thought on history.[31] However, adherents of Marx's theories argue that Stalin distortedMarxism.[32]

World historians[edit]

  • Christopher Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World: Global Connections and Comparisons, 1780–1914 (London, 2004)
  • Jerry Bentley, (1949-2012) Founder and editor of the Journal of World History
  • Philip D. Curtin (1922-2009), The World and the West: The European Challenge and the Overseas Response in the Age of Empire. (2000) 308 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-77135-1. online review
  • Christopher Dawson (1889-1970) Religion and the Rise of Western Culture (1950) excerpt and text search
  • Will Durant (1885-1981) and Ariel Durant (1898-1981); Story of Civilization(1935-1975).
  • Felipe Fernandez-Armesto (b.1950), "Millennium" (1995), "Civilizations" (2000), "The World" (2007).
  • Francis Fukuyama (1952– ) The End of History and the Last Man (1992)[33]
  • Peter Haugen, professor of the University of Wisconsin; writer of World History for Dummies
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1830), philosopher of world history[34]
  • Patrick Manning, Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past (2003)[35]
  • William Hardy McNeill (born 1917);[36] see especially The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (1963)
  • Robert McNeill and William H. McNeill. The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2014) excerpt
  • Carroll Quigley (1910-1977), The Evolution of Civilizations (1961), Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (1966), Weapons Systems and Political Stability: A History (1983)
  • Pitirim Sorokin (1889–1968), Russian-American macrosociology; Social and Cultural Dynamics (4 vol., 1937–41)[37]
  • Oswald Spengler (1880-1936), German; Decline of the West (1918–22) vol 1 online; vol 2 online; excerpt and text search, abridged edition
  • Peter Stearns, (1936- ) USA; World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity, 7th ed. (2009); Encyclopedia of World History, 6th ed. (200pp)
  • Luc-Normand Tellier, Canadian; Urban World History, PUQ, (2009), 650 pages; online edition
  • Arnold J. Toynbee, British; A Study of History (1934–61);[38] see especially A Study of History.
  • Eric Voegelin (1901–1985) Order and History (1956–85)[39]
  • Immanuel Wallerstein, World-systems theory


Surveys of world history[edit]

  • Bayly, Christopher Alan. The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914: global connections and comparisons (Blackwell, 2004)
  • Bullet, Richard et al., The Earth and Its Peoples 6th ed. 2 vol, 2014), university textbook
  • Duiker, William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History (2 vol 2006), university textbook
  • Gombrich, Ernst. A Little History of the World (1936 & 1995)
  • Grenville, J.A.S. A History of the World: From the 20th to the 21st Century (2005)
  • McKay, John P. and Bennett D. Hill. A History of World Societies (2 vol. 2011), university textbook
  • McNeill, William H. A World History (1998), University textbook
  • McNeill, William H., Jerry H. Bentley, and David Christian, eds. Berkshire Encyclopedia Of World History (5 vol 2005)
  • Osterhammel, Jürgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (Princeton University Press, 2014), 1167pp
  • Paine, Lincoln. The sea and civilization: a maritime history of the world (Knopf, 2013). Pp. xxxv+ 744. 72 illustrations, 17 maps. excerpt
  • Roberts, J. M. and O. A. Westad. The History of the World (2013)
  • Rosenberg, Emily, et al. eds. A World Connecting: 1870-1945 (2012)
  • Stearns, Peter N. ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World: 1750 to the Present (8 vol. 2008)
  • Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History (1998) online edition
  • Szulc, Tad. Then and Now: How the World Has Changed since W.W. II. (1990). 515 p. ISBN 0-688-07558-4; Popular history
  • Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: A History of the World (4th ed, 2 vol. 2013), University textbook
  • Watt, D. C., Frank Spencer, Neville Brown. A History of the World in the Twentieth Century (1967)

Transnational histories[edit]

  • Adam, Thomas. Intercultural Transfers and the Making of the Modern World, 1800-2000: Sources and Contexts (2011)
  • Boon, Marten. "Business Enterprise and Globalization: Towards a Transnational Business History." Business History Review 91.3 (2017): 511-535.
  • Davies, Thomas Richard. NGOs: A new history of transnational civil society (2014).
  • Ember, Carol R. Melvin Ember, and Ian A. Skoggard, eds. Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world (2004).
  • Iriye, Akira. Global and Transnational History: The Past, Present, and Future (2010), 94pp
  • Iriye, Akira and Pierre-Yves Saunier, eds. The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History: From the mid-19th century to the present day (2009); 1284pp; 400 entries by scholars; 1350pp
  • Osterhammel, Jürgen and Niels P. Petersson. Globalization: A Short History (2009)
  • Pieke Frank N., Nyíri Pál, Thunø Mette, and Ceddagno Antonella. Transnational Chinese: Fujianese migrants in Europe (2004)
  • Saunier, Pierre-Yves. Transnational History (2013)


  • Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. The Times Atlas of World History (1979).
  • Catchpole, Brian. Map History of the Modern World (1982)
  • Darby, H. C., and H. Fullard, eds. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1970)
  • Haywood, John. Atlas of world history (1997) online free
  • Kinder, Hermann and Werner Hilgemann. Anchor Atlas of World History (2 vol. 1978); advanced analytical maps, mostly of Europe
  • O'Brian, Patrick. Atlas of World History (2010). excerpt
  • Santon, Kate, and Liz McKay, eds. Atlas of World History (2005).


  • Adas, Michael. Essays on Twentieth-Century History (2010); historiographic essays on world history conceptualizing the "long" 20th century, from the 1870s to the early 2000s.
  • Bentley, Jerry H., ed. The Oxford Handbook of World History (Oxford University Press, 2011)
  • Tinagaran a/Lsivakumar jeremiah john a/l hendry puluthi siva santhiya a/p robert Global and Comparative History Series. (1996)
  • Costello, Paul. World Historians and Their Goals: Twentieth-Century Answers to Modernism (1993).
  • Curtin, Philip D. "Depth, Span, and Relevance," The American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Feb., 1984), pp. 1–9 in JSTOR
  • Dunn, Ross E., ed. The New World History: A Teacher's Companion. (2000). 607pp. ISBN 978-0-312-18327-1online review
  • Frye, Northrop. "Spengler Revisited" in Northrop Frye on modern culture (2003), pp 297–382, first published 1974; online
  • Hare, J. Laurence, and Jack Wells. "Promising the World: Surveys, Curricula, and the Challenge of Global History," History Teacher, 48 (Feb. 2015) pp: 371-88. online
  • Hughes-Warrington, Marnie. Palgrave Advances in World Histories (2005), 256pp, articles by scholars
  • Lang, Michael. "Globalization and Global History in Toynbee," Journal of World History 22#4 Dec. 2011 pp. 747–783 in project MUSE
  • McInnes, Neil. "The Great Doomsayer: Oswald Spengler Reconsidered." National Interest 1997 (48): 65–76. ISSN 0884-9382 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • McNeill, William H. "The Changing Shape of World History." History and Theory 1995 34(2): 8–26. ISSN 0018-2656in JSTOR
  • Manning, Patrick. Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past (2003), an important guide to the entire field excerpt and text search; online review
  • Mazlish, Bruce. "Comparing Global History to World History," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 28, No. 3 (Winter, 1998), pp. 385–395 in JSTOR
  • National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA. World History: The Big Eras, A Compact History of Humankind (2009), 96pp
  • Neiberg, Michael S. Warfare in World History (2001) online edition
  • O'Brien, Patrick K., ed. Atlas of World History. (2002)
  • Patel, Klaus Kiran: Transnational History, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History(2011) retrieved: November 11, 2011.
  • Richards, Michael D. Revolutions in World History (2003) online edition
  • Roupp, Heidi, ed. Teaching World History: A Resource Book. (1997), 274pp; online edition
  • Sachsenmaier, Dominic, "Global Perspectives on Global History" (2011), Cambridge UP
  • Smil, Vaclav. Energy in World History (1994) online edition
  • Tellier, Luc-Normand. Urban World History (2009), PUQ, 650 pages; online edition
  • Zhukov, E. M., et al. "Theoretical Problems of the World Historical Process." (1979).
  • Watts, Sheldon. Disease and Medicine in World History (2003) online edition

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Professional groups
  • Student Handouts, Inc. Free World History Lesson Plans, Handouts, and Worksheets
  • Our World In Data—Web publication by Max Roser (from the University of Oxford) that visualises how living standards around the world have changed historically. Makes data available and covers a wide range of topics: Historical trends in health, food provision, the growth and distribution of incomes, violence, rights, wars, energy use, education, environmental changes and many other aspects are empirically analysed and visualised in this open access web publication.
  • World History Matters
  • The TimeMap of World History - World History Atlas
  • HistoryWorld
  • World History For Us All – (Christian) World History Model Curriculum
  • Erik Ringmar, History of International Relations Open Textbook Project, Cambridge: Open Book, forthcoming.
  • EDSITEment's World History vetted websites and lesson plansEDSITEment, "The Best of the Humanities on the Web"
  1. ^J. Laurence Hare, and Jack Wells, "Promising the World: Surveys, Curricula, and the Challenge of Global History," History Teacher, 48 (Feb. 2015) pp: 371-88.
  2. ^Peter Gran (28 February 2009). The Rise of the Rich: A New View of Modern World History. Syracuse University Press. p. XVI. ISBN 978-0-8156-3171-2. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  3. ^see H-World
  4. ^see JWH WebsiteArchived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^History Association - Mission
  6. ^Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty (3rd ed. 1995) excerpt and text search; Burton Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian of China (1958)
  7. ^S. Y. Teng, "Chinese Historiography in the Last Fifty Years," The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Feb., 1949), pp. 131–156 in JSTOR
  8. ^K.H. Waters, Herodotus the Historian (1985)
  9. ^Patrick G. Walsh, Livy: His Historical Aims and Methods (1961)
  10. ^Frank W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, (3 vols. 1957–82)
  11. ^History of the World Conqueror by Ala Ad Din Ata Malik Juvaini, translated by John Andrew Boyle, Harvard University Press 1958, Project Gutenberg on line edition
  12. ^Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson. "10. Jámi'u-t Tawáríkh, of Rashid-al-Din". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3.). London : Trübner & Co..
  13. ^Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History ed. by N. J. Dawood, Bruce Lawrence, and Franz Rosenthal (2004) excerpt and text search
  14. ^Bradley J. Birzer, Sanctifying the World: The Augustinian Life and Mind of Christopher Dawson (2007)
  15. ^Michael P. Federici, Eric Voegelin: The Restoration of Order (2002)
  16. ^Michael Mann, The Sources of Social Power: Volume 1, A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1760 (1986) excerpt and text search
  17. ^Neil McInnes, "The Great Doomsayer: Oswald Spengler Reconsidered." National Interest 1997 (48): 65–76. Fulltext: Ebsco
  18. ^William H. McNeill, Arnold J. Toynbee a Life (1989)
  19. ^William H. McNeill, "The Changing Shape of World History." History and Theory 1995 34(2): 8–26.
  20. ^Wallbank, T. Walter; et al. (1992). Civilization Past & Present. New York: HarperCollins. pp. xxv. ISBN 0-673-38867-0. 
  21. ^Patrick Manning, Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past (2003); Ross E. Dunn, ed., The New World History: A Teacher's Companion. (2000).
  22. ^See Points 8 and 9.
  23. ^Jonathan T. Reynolds, "Africa and World History: from Antipathy to Synergy." History Compass 2007 5(6): 1998–2013. ISSN 1478-0542 Fulltext: [1. History Compass]
  24. ^See, in particular, Marx and Engels, The German Ideology
  25. ^Marx makes no claim to have produced a master key to history. Historical materialism is not "an historico-philosophic theory of the marche generale imposed by fate upon every people, whatever the historic circumstances in which it finds itself" (Marx, Karl: Letter to editor of the Russian paper Otetchestvennye Zapiskym, 1877). His ideas, he explains, are based on a concrete study of the actual conditions that pertained in Europe.
  26. ^Marx, Early writings, Penguin, 1975, p. 426.
  27. ^Charles Taylor, “Critical Notice”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1980), p. 330.
  28. ^Marx and Engels, The Critique of the Gotha Programme
  29. ^Marx and Engels, The Civil War in France
  30. ^Gewirth, Alan (1998). The Community of Rights (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780226288819. Retrieved 2012-12-29.  
  31. ^Regna Darnell; Frederic Gleach (2007). Histories of Anthropology Annual. U of Nebraska Press. p. 56. 
  32. ^[1]
  33. ^See revised edition
  34. ^see Philosophy of History
  35. ^See excerpt
  36. ^See McNeill, The Pursuit of Truth: A Historian's Memoir (2005)
  37. ^B. V. Johnston, Pitirim A. Sorokin an Intellectual Biography (1995)
  38. ^William H. McNeill, Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life (1990)
  39. ^Jeffrey C. Herndon, Eric Voegelin and the Problem of Christian Political Order (2007) excerpt and text search

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