This article is about occupations. For the biblical figure, see Job (biblical figure). For other uses, see Job (disambiguation) and Occupation (disambiguation).
A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges).
An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career. The two may differ in that one usually retires from their career, versus resignation or termination from a job.
Jobs for people
Most people spend up to forty or more hours each week in paid employment. Some exceptions are children, retirees, and people with disabilities; However, within these groups, many will work part-time, volunteer, or work as a homemaker. From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society(and therefore their 'job') is to learn and study as a student.
Types of jobs
Jobs can be categorized, by the hours per week, into full time or part time. They can be categorized as temporary, odd jobs, seasonal, self-employment, consulting, or contract employment.
Jobs can be categorized as paid or unpaid. Examples of unpaid jobs include volunteer, homemaker, mentor, student, and sometimes intern.
Jobs can be categorized by the level of experience required: entry level, intern, and co-op.
Some jobs require specific training or an academic degree.
Those without paid full-time employment may be categorized as unemployed or underemployed if they are seeking a full-time paid job.
Moonlighting is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs, often at night, in addition to one's main job, usually to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for sleep or leisure activities.
The Office for National Statistics in the United Kingdom lists 27,966 different job titles, within a website published 2015.
The expression day job is often used for a job one works in order to make ends meet while performing low-paying (or non-paying) work in their preferred vocation. Archetypal examples of this are the woman who works as a waitress (her day job) while she tries to become an actress, and the professional athlete who works as a laborer in the off season because he is currently only able to make the roster of a semi-professional team.
While many people do hold a full-time occupation, "day job" specifically refers to those who hold the position solely to pay living expenses so they can pursue, through low paying entry work, the job they really want (which may also be during the day). The phrase strongly implies that the day job would be quit, if only the real vocation paid a living wage.
The phrase "don't quit your day job" is a humorous response to a poor or mediocre performance not up to professional caliber. The phrase implies that the performer is not talented enough in that activity to be able to make a career out of it.
Getting a job
Further information: Job hunting and Employment
Getting a first job is an important rite of passage in many cultures. The youth may start by doing household work, odd jobs, or working for a family business. In many countries, school children get summer jobs during the longer summer vacation. Students enrolled in higher education can apply for internships or coops to further enhance the probability of securing an entry level job upon graduation.
Résumés summarize a person's education and job experience for potential employers. Employers read job candidate résumés to decide whom to interview for an open position.
Use of the word
Workers often talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of "land" as a possession (real estate) or intellectual rights as a possession (intellectual property).
Occupation and life expectancy
Manual work seems to shorten one's lifespan. High rank (a higher position at the pecking order) has a positive effect. Professions that cause anxiety have a direct negative impact on health and lifespan. Some data is more complex to interpret due to the various reasons of long life expectancy; thus skilled professionals, employees with secure jobs and low anxiety occupants may live a long life for variant reasons. The more positive characteristics one's job is, the more likely he or she will have a longer lifespan. Gender, country, and actual (what statistics reveal, not what people believe) danger are also notable parameters.
- Davis, Steven; Haltiwanger, John; Schuh, Scott (1998), Job Creation and Destruction, MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-54093-3
- Granovetter, Mark (1995), Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-30581-3
- Joshel, Sandra (1992), Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome: A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-2444-5
- Kranzberg, Melvin; Gies, Joseph (1986), By the Sweat of Thy Brow: Work in the Western World, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-25323-2
- Miller, Ann Ratner; Treiman, Donald; Cain, Pamela; Roos, Pamela (1980), Work, Jobs, and Occupations: a critical review of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, National Academy Press
- Orr, Julian Edgerton (1996), Talking about Machines: An Ethnography of a Modern Job, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-8390-5
- Robinson, Tony; Willcock, David (2005), The Worst Jobs in History: Two Thousand Years of Miserable Employment, Pan Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-330-43857-5
- Roebuck, Carl (1969), The Muses at Work: arts, crafts, and professions in ancient Greece and Rome, MIT Press
- Morse, Nancy; Weiss, Robert (1955). "The Function and Meaning of Work and the Job". American Sociological Review. 20 (2): 191–198. doi:10.2307/2088325. JSTOR 2088325.
Media related to Jobs at Wikimedia Commons
How should I go about choosing my topic?
Begin by reading the explanations below. Examples of each are provided below!
- Division Essay: find a topic that people might tend to underestimate or over-simplify. In other words, choose something that the average person might not know much about, and therefore can't really understand how complex or interesting that topic really is. Your job in the essay will be to break your topic down into meaningful and important categories.
- Classification Essay: think about the categories we place things in everyday and the characteristics of those categories. The topic you choose should allow you to argue that something has been misplaced.
How should I organize this essay?
As you write, keep these guidelines in mind:
- Your thesis statement and introduction will need to explain why these divisions/ classifications should matter to your reader.
- Your thesis statement and introduction MUST define or explain the category you plan to discuss (i.e. A sport is a competitive, physical activity therefore cheerleading should be considered a sport.)
- You should organize your body paragraphs so that each division or category has it's own paragraph or section. (i.e. cardio exercise is paragraph 1 and weightlifting is paragraph 2, etc.)
Division Essay Examples
If you want to lose weight, simply saying that you're going to "exercise" everyday may not be the most effective way to do so. Exercising is more complex than many people realize--attaining your goals will involve understanding how different types of exercise can help you achieve your goals.
Types of Exercise
- cardio: burns calories and strengthens your heart (running, using an elliptical or stair-stepping machine, etc.)
- weight lifting: tones muscles, increases physical strength, burns fat (using weights or weighted machines)
- recreational/sports: depending on the sport, can provide both cardio and toning benefits (cycling, tennis, kayaking)
We could also narrow this topic down a bit further and write about the important differences between different types of cycling.
Types of Cycling: stationary (exercise) biking, road biking, mountain biking, recreational biking
Classification Essay Examples
To write this type of essay, we'll need to think about things that should or should not be placed in a particular category.Example: Batman (that's our topic!) is not a superhero (category people place him in), but is simply a local vigilante (category he belongs in).
Ask yourself: Why do I think that...?
- Does not possess super powers (powers most humans don't possess).
- Chooses to be a hero, rather than being "chosen" by others/other forces.
Example: Cheerleading (That's our topic!) should be considered a sport (It belongs in the category, "sports").
Ask yourself: Why do I think that...?
- cheerleaders go to "practice" and must be in good physical shape
- cheerleaders work together toward a common goal
- cheerleaders must "try out" for their squad and often compete against other squads